In 2014, there are many intriguing mobile communication gadgets like the following:
- The giant-screen VoiceTab tablets of Hewlett Packard: Slate6 and Slate7. It comes with a 250 MB data every month for a 2-year contract.
- Android phone of Lenovo, the S860 that can recharge a phone through its USB port.
- A prototype smartphone that runs an operating system on Firefox and can be bought at only $25.
- A Wi-Fi router that is developed by ZTE. This device allows sharing of its LTE connection with other nearby phones and can also recharge them.
- The Liquid E3 of Acer, this device has a special button on its back to help people take selfies easier.
- Blackphone, this is an Android-based smartphone and a privacy-first that come with a preset so that communications are encrypted and anonymous.
The devices listed above share one thing, they cannot reach the US stores even if they are made in the US or the prices are listed in US dollars. They were witnessed by many people during the global gathering of new technologies in the coming year. That was an excellent opportunity for people to see the latest in the world of smartphones which are different from what major companies are offering.
However, the biggest distortion in the US market is that people cannot buy a phone unless the carrier buys first. This is the same with how middlemen step into any transaction like subscription of TV services whom they decide what type of box to use or tune into or the liquor stores which are run by the state where they charge too high for those limited selections. Generally, these situations create a feedback on what customers like and do not like.
This works the same for mobile communication gadgets and even more complicated because carriers have great power over the vendors that are not included in the US shopping lists. Also, this could lead to manipulation of prices that even affordable devices are sold to the market at an expensive rate and the most desirable devices have very stringent requirements too.
Even large manufacturers are doing much work before they can work with major carriers in the US like Verizon Wireless that has 96.2 million subscribers and 72.6 million subscribers for AT&T. As much as large manufacturers are trying hard to get into the US market, this makes it harder for smaller manufacturers. They need a lot of infrastructure to build support from major carriers. Also, manufacturing companies of the devices listed above said that these carriers in the US are like behemoths, they feel like owning the whole world.
For this reason, some of the companies are not pursuing the US market, instead, they are concentrating more on developing markets that could benefit from affordable smartphones.
With the advent of technology today and the rise of the internet, we do not only rely on our phone’s communicating capabilities to actually get in touch to people around the world. In fact, we do not even have to pay for international calls to do so. All you have to do is to purchase a smartphone, download mobile communication apps, and make sure you have an internet connection.
Top Mobile Communication Apps
Line is a mobile communication app that offers not only mobile messaging, but voice calls as well. Its mobile messaging comes with stickers of cartoon characters that work as emoticons which makes communication with your friends extra fun. To add with all the fun, it also allows you to play fun games with your friends that are also Line subscribers.
Viber is another popular mobile communication app that uses the WiFi or internet data plan to send messages and make phone calls which are not counted to the data the user has used up. It has become popular among mobile internet users primarily because it is easy and convenient to use; you do not have to add contacts to the apps for it immediately syncs your phone’s contacts to your Viber account, given that they also have one.
WhatsApp is one of the mobile communication apps that allow mobile phone users to send text messages for free. However, one should be connected to the internet via WiFi or have a mobile data internet connection on order to send them. The app can also send video and audio messages, as well as photos to other WhatsApp subscribers. The only downside of this app is that it does not have voice call features just yet. Also, it is not offered for free in the app store.
A communication technology such as the computer actually has various types of cables in order to function. These cables or wires are vital in processing information that is received or sent by a computer; thus, it allows communication from user to computer, computer to another computer, computer to another device, device to computer, and computer to user. Note that when you look inside the computer or any device, you will be able to see a lot of wires with color coding. In this article, you will be able to learn more about these types of cable and their colors on a computer.
Computer Power Cables
Computer power cables are those that get power from the socket into the computer; technically, it helps power the computer. You will be able to see three-colored cables inside the power cord; these are the black, white, and green cables. The black cable is the one that has 120 volts of power, the white cable is that with a neutral power, and the green cable is the ground one. The power supply of the computer aids in the conversion of voltage to a direct current. This power supply has bundled wires with 6 colored cables: orange wire with +3.3 colts; red wire with +5 volts; yellow wire with +12 volts; blue wire with -12 volts; white wire with -5 volts; and the black wire that is ground.
Computer Signal Cable Wires
Computer signal cables are those that connect the hard and optical drives of the computer to its motherboard. It carries low voltage signals and generally do not have a cable color cords.
Network Cable Wires
There are two types of network cables; the coaxial cables and the twisted pairs of cables. The coaxial cable wires have one copper conductor in the middle but with no special cable color coding. The twisted pair cables, on the other hand, have cable color coding which generally signifies as to where the wires actually belong. One of the pair generally has a solid color; meanwhile, the other pair is striped.
Computer Peripheral Cables
Computer peripheral cables are those that are connected to external devices such as monitors, printers, and other devices. Each of their cables has standardized plugs for which signal type and voltage it should belong to. Cable color codes for these types of wire are not actually standardized for they depend upon its manufacturer. To know more about their color coding, you might as well read the manual to ensure its proper placement.
Cable is a medium of communication where we can get to watch news, current events, and the arts from various channels. Each channel or television company offers various services that include movies, television shows, information, lifestyle, news, sports, and other programs that are geared towards specific group of people. All of which provides information we may or we may not want to know about. It has become a venue where we can pitch ideas and learn more about how diverse our society is.
Cable television is actually run by cable operators which allows televisions at home or other institutions to have channels that will interest the audience; in fact, they can even install channels for private or institutional use. Before you purchase cable services, it is very important that you educate yourself first with the rules and regulations that govern it.
Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984
The Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984 provided policies which pertain to ownership, franchise and renewals, usage of channels, subscription rates, privacy and obscenity, unauthorized reception of cable services, and employment opportunities. Aside from that, it also has established boundaries which govern the cable systems between federal and local authorities in the area.
Cable Television Consumer Protection and Competition Act of 1992
This act provides protection to consumers as well as companies. It prevented subscription rate inflations from various cable operators during the time when competition didn’t seem to increase. It helped the diversification of views and information consumers get from watching. It also makes sure that cable operators aim to enhance their services and prevent them from exercise power that is uncalled for over the industry.
Telecommunications Act of 1996
The act provided for a pro-competition policy which provided for the advancement of telecommunication services from cable operators throughout the United States.
Today, cable and telephone companies are converting to optical fiber because of its many advantages. However, the use of optical fiber has also its limitations or disadvantages in communication cable support. These are:
- Cables made of optical fiber have limited bend radius which is only about 30 mm. In case they are bent more, it can cause some signal loss. Recently, due to this limitation, there are optical fibers introduced in the market which has a higher tolerance in bending.
- Optical fiber cables can only carry data unlike the copper UTP cables that can carry data including power. Some of IP devices which are POE enabled such as Wireless Access Points, IP Phone and others can be powered through direct use of the UTP Cables or POE Switches.
- Optical fiber cable has many kinds of connectors and this could lead to lack of standardization; thus will add confusion. On the other hand, the Copper UTP has a standard connector and jacks.
- When the normal optical fiber cable is bent, it can cause induced signal leakage that is the main reason for information hacking. This case may be difficult to happen but just the same, optical fiber cable is not completely tamper proof.
- The single mode cable or optical fiber and its associated optics are very expensive. There are lesser expensive cables like the multi-mode optics or cables but they are still expensive compared to the cost of copper UTP ports or cables. Also, multi-code cables have limitations in terms of the distance to support higher bandwidth.
- There are available outdoor fiber cables in the market but they must be shielded well but shielding makes the cables less flexible or agile to operate in all areas as well as increases cable cost.
- Optical fiber cable cannot be terminated directly on the optical switches or the network. It needs a whole array of passive or active components such as Fiber Patch Cords, SFP Modules, appropriate connectors, Couplers, Pigtails and FIber Patch Panel. All these necessary components can add to the cost of the implementation of fiber network in every location.
- Every core of the fiber cable has to be spliced so that there is a complete connection to the optical switch or the network. The splicing of the equipment and installation cost in each core is expensive.
- The splicing of fiber cable needs skilled manpower because it is a complicated procedure. If the process fails, it will result in degradation of performance.
- An outdoor fiber cable that has been shielded cannot be laid in trench because it needs a minimum external HDPE pipe that will surround the entire length, concrete or brick slabs over the HDPE pipe or fiber cable. The whole process will further increase the cost.
These are the advantages of using optical fiber in communication cable support.
Ethernet cables are one of the most widely-used forms of network cables on a wireless network such as the WiFi. It is generally used to connect devices on a local area network (LAN) such as personal computers, routers, or even switches. There are different types of Ethernet cables that vary according to their users and physical appearance.
Types of Ethernet Cables
CAT 5 cable is a standard network cable as defined by the Electronic Industry Association and Telecommunications Industry Association (EIA or TIA). It basically contains 8 copper wires that supports Ethernet speeds running up to 100 mbps; however, note that this speed only needs 2 pairs of copper wires. A newer version of the CAT 5 is the CAT 5e, otherwise known as the CAT 5 enhanced. This new version supports Ethernet speeds running up to 1GB; and it uses the 4 pairs of copper wires.
CAT 6 ethernet cable is a standard 6th generation Ethernet cable defined by the Electronic Industries Association and Telecommunications Industry Association (EIA and TIA). Like its previous generation of Ethernet cable, it also contains 4 pairs of copper wires. It uses all the copper wires; thereby supporting Gigabit Ethernet speeds running up to 1 GBPS. Its difference from the CAT 5e is that it actually has more than twice the latter’s speed. There is also a newer version of this type of Ethernet cable which is the Category 6a (CAT 6a) that actually supports speeds running up to 10 GBPS. It is very important to note, however, that CAT 6 cable is only limited to a maximum recommended cable wire length of 100 meters or 328 feet; just like other types of twisted pair cabling. You can identify CAT6 cables through the printing along the sheath of the cable.
Crossover Ethernet cable is used to connect two network devices directly to each other using an Ethernet. It is generally used in situations where there are no wireless routers, switches, or hubs available as of the moment. As opposed to the standard Ethernet cables, the internal wirings of this type of cable actually work to reverse the communication of the signals; thus, it has reverse color coded cable wires. Note that these types of cable will only work in direct network connections. Thus, when you connect a computer and a hub using this cable, the network link won’t be functioning. However, broadband routers are actually exceptions to this rule.
Communication has a long history which dates back at least two centuries ago. It has been constantly developing through time to give us the most efficient and convenient way of passing messages to the recipient. There are various forms of communication and this includes radio, television, telephone, telegraph, and so on.
The internet technology has played a vital role in communication today for it gave way to a wide array of mobile communication apps as well as communication using the computer. At first, it allowed us to communicate with people through e-mails which can be received by its recipient within the day. This proved to be very useful when we need responses to important letters right away; and thus, eliminated the use of snail mail. And then, it introduced instant messaging applications which allowed us to communicate through chat messaging where we interact with people through text messages in real time. And then there was the WiFi that allowed various computers and handheld devices to use one source of internet connection.
Smartphones and Tablet
As technology paves a way of better means of communication, telecommunication companies have also been developing mobile phones which make it easier for us to communicate anytime, anywhere. Before the dawn of the internet era, mobile phones were limited only to voice calls allowing us to be contacted even when we are on mobile. Then text messaging was introduced allowing us to send messages that are not so urgent. During those times, mobile phone companies have been improving their devices. And as internet users have been increasing in numbers, smartphones were created. Smartphones allow us to connect our devices to the internet and surf the internet. With this, mobile communication apps were also developed; thus, now we have various means of reaching other people no matter how far they are from us.
Mobile communication is made possible by satellites that revolve around the Earth’s orbit. It is basically a technology that allows people around the world to communicate. It relays information from one point to another. Without it, it is simply impossible to communicate with each other through internet, telephones, radio, television, and mobile phones.
What are Mobile Communication Satellites?
Mobile communication satellites are satellites that are primarily used to receive, amplify, redirect, and send signals that come from the senders living on Earth through radiofrequency waves. Note that these signals primarily contain information that senders want to convey to its intended recipient. This communication technology is very powerful that it can process up to 155 million bits of data per second. These data would include thousands of voice and text messages, and other complex video and internet data.
What are the Functions of Mobile Communication Satellites?
Mobile communication satellites have been deemed very useful in all parts of the world ever since Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. These satellites are used to provide fast and real-time communication in the transportation industry. They allow us ships, trains, airplanes, and even automobile vehicles to communicate with each other, as well as pin point their location on the map. Aside from that, it is also useful for those who want to find directions to a place they are not entirely familiar with. All in all, it helps in the promotion of secure and safe transportation.
Aside from that, mobile communication satellites are especially important in communication; from one point in the globe to another. With these satellites, it has been possible to communicate with people living from distant areas. It also helped us in learning about other cultures around the world.
Where does Mobile Communication Satellites Orbit?
There are a path in which these satellites orbit around the earth; high to low orbit satellites. High satellites are those that actually move together with the Earth that it may appear stationary. Note, however, that these satellites are programmed not to meet each other when circling around the Earth’s orbit for the danger of explosion.
Roaming mobile communication ensures that traveling wireless devices like cell phones are always connected to a certain network and prevents any disruption in the connection. Traditional roaming is a term pertaining to the capability of cellular customers to make or take voice calls automatically, receive or send information, and access many services like home information services while travelling beyond the geographical coverage of a certain home network area by utilizing visited networks. For instance, if you travel beyond the transmitter range of your cellular phone company, your cellular phone will automatically tap into another telephone company’s service.
Utilizing another telephone company’s service is carried out by using the subscriber’s identity within the visited network. Technically, roaming is supported by account billing, authorization, authentication, and mobility management procedures or triple A (AAA).
The word “roaming” comes from the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) standard utilized by cellphones, which is the commonly known global standard for mobile communications with at least 80% market share. The term “roaming” is also applicable to CDMA technology, which is a method of channel access that includes 3G.
Roaming is categorized into username/password-based roaming and SIM-based roaming, by which the technical word “roaming” also covers roaming among networks of various network standards like GSM or Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). Device functionality and equipment like power management, network interfaces, antenna, and SIM card capacity determine the possibilities for access.
Utilizing the examples of WLAN/GSM roaming, the settings below can be made:
- In SIM-based roaming, GSM subscribers roam onto a Public WLAN that is operated by either the GSM Operator or an Operator that has a roaming contract with the GSM Operator.
- In username/password-based roaming, GSM subscribers roam onto the Public WLAN that is operated by their GSM Operator or an Operator that has a roaming contract with the GSM Operator.
Although the above settings are focused on roaming from GSM Network Operator’s networks, it is evident that roaming can be bidirectional – from Public WLAN Operators to GSM networks. Traditional roaming within networks with the same standards, WLAN–WLAN or GSM network–GSM network, is likewise defined by the foreignness of a network according to the type of subscriber entry in the home subscriber register. Seamless access to such services over various access types is also offered in case of session continuity.
Radio and mobile communication system pertains to wireless communication devices and systems that utilize radio frequencies and where communication paths are mobile on each end. There are several views on what makes up mobile equipment. For United States licensing purposes, mobiles may be hand carried, or portable, equipment. A term no longer used is radiophone.
To sales people or radio repair shops, the term mobile would mean vehicle mounted, a transceiver or transmitter-receiver utilized for radio communications coming from vehicles. Mobile radios are set in motor vehicles often with the control panel and microphone within the driver’s reach. In the United States, such device is generally supported by host vehicles that have 12-volt electrical systems.
A number of mobile radios are used on railroad locomotives, motorcycles, shipboard, and aircraft. Power varies with every platform. For instance, mobile radios installed in locomotives would power a 72- or 30-volt DC power. A big ship with 117V AC power could have a base station installed on a ship’s bridge.
Two-Way Radio and Radiotelephone: Is There a Difference?
As two-way radio and radiotelephone are combined, their difference becomes unidentifiable. How can one distinguish one from the other? The backbone of the system is what determines which classification applies. Something parallel to such concept is the merging of telephones and computing.
Radio telephones are circuit switched and full-duplex and mainly communicate with telephones linked to the public switched telephone networks, and connection is set up according to the user dialing. Such connection is cut the moment the end button is pushed. Radiotelephones may be used on telephone-based infrastructure like GSM or AMPS.
Two-way radios are dispatch tools that are designed to communicate in simplex or half-duplex modes using push to talk and mainly utilized for communicating with other radios, instead of telephones. Conventional two-way systems or Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio (ESMR), MPT-1327, Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR), and Nextel’s iDEN are among the push-to-talk-based infrastructure that these systems run on.